Stuttering is a violation of the smoothness and rhythm of speech. It occurs due to convulsions of the muscles of the speech apparatus, accompanied by respiratory failure, changes in the pitch and strength of sound, etc. 1% of adults and 2-3% of the small inhabitants of our planet suffer from it. Boys, by the way, are four times more likely than girls. Most often, stuttering begins in early childhood (2-5 years) – at this time the baby is most actively forming phrasal speech, which means that it is the speech function that becomes the most vulnerable area of ​​the psyche. Therefore, any disturbances in the functioning of the nervous system can cause a breakdown of speech.

How does it manifest

Many are sure that stuttering arises from a fright or a “loud” conflict of parents – that is, after some kind of psychological trauma. But all the children are sometimes scared, sometimes very much, and not everyone after that starts to stutters. So, it’s not only a matter of fright.

The reason for this violation lies in the fact that the person who had a “breakdown” of speech already had a predisposition to it, and the traumatic situation simply layered. According to experts, such children have an increased level of anxiety.

The disease has a complex origin. When the relationship of nervous processes in the cerebral cortex is disrupted, a failure occurs in the transmission of nerve impulses, including to the speech reproduction area. Convulsions occur in various parts of the speech apparatus (larynx, pharynx, tongue, lips). As a result, some of its components work earlier, others later. The pace and smoothness of speech movements is violated – the vocal cords tightly close or open, the voice suddenly disappears, the words are pronounced in a whisper and elongated – “pp-field”, “bbb-be-birch.”

There are several reasons for this. But the main one is the weakness of the nervous system, most often caused by infectious diseases (complications after measles, scarlet fever, meningitis, encephalitis) or sluggish chronic pathology – rheumatism, pneumonia, etc. Sometimes children are already born with a weakened nervous system – for example, due to the unfavorable course of pregnancy.


There are other reasons – psychological. Abnormal living conditions, quarrels of parents with a child, harsh attitude towards him, conflicting demands of senior family members injure the child’s psyche and entail speech disorder. By the way, both backlog and too rapid development of speech are undesirable. It happens that a child, imitating the sloppy speech of others, seeks to express his thoughts as soon as possible, gets confused, gets confused in sounds and also starts to stutters.

What to do 

Here, more than ever, the principle “the sooner the better” is important – the “fresh” stutter can be eliminated in two weeks.

There are many methods of treatment – from speech therapy massage to hypnosis. But successful examples show: treatment should be comprehensive.

First of all, it is necessary to determine the type of stuttering – this will determine what to do next. Therefore, you first need to go to a neurologist, and if he does not reveal serious malfunctions in the central nervous system, then most likely, a speech therapist will solve the problem. But this is in mild cases. Usually several specialists have to work at once.

And the help of a qualified neuropathologist-reflexologist can be crucial here. Indeed, in stuttering children and adults, in addition to impaired general and speech motility, often there is general muscle tension, stiffness, angular movements or, conversely, motor anxiety, frequent cramps, headaches.

With trauma (including birth), stress, and diseases, some muscles contract, and remain in this state. They are straining during negative emotions. If a person constantly experiences the same feelings, tension builds up, and in certain places so-called myofascial formations arise – compressed spasmodic areas of muscle tissue that interfere with the transmission of a nerve impulse.

– Almost all stuttering children have clamps in the shoulder girdle, neck and even abdomen. By the way, because of this, even the head of many people is slightly advanced. Therefore, at the first stage of treatment, the most important thing is to find these changed areas and remove stress there. Unfortunately, they usually resort to medical treatment, and it gives a weak and short-lasting effect. Myotherapy is needed here – muscle treatment.

The treachery of HIV and the consequences of becoming infected with it is nothing more than carelessness of the people themselves. Yes, indeed, HIV infection is a serious disease. Today, there is no vaccine against it and it is completely incurable. But with timely diagnosis and subsequent HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), the life expectancy of HIV-positive patients is no different from the average values. The drugs taken throughout life inhibit the development of HIV infection and people live to a very old age – 70 – 80 years. Following the recommendations of specialists, they lead a normal lifestyle – they work, get married, travel and even have healthy children. The main thing is to recognize the first signs of the disease in time and seek help by having free HIV testing Los Angeles.


The first signs of HIV infection

Self-medication is a bad habit. If you feel unwell, we diagnose ourselves, prescribe medications, thereby ignoring the symptoms in the early stages of HIV infection. At this time, the virus is already actively attacking the cells of our immune system and destroying it. The following signs indicate the progression of the process.


  • Enlarged lymph nodes – on the neck, groin, in the armpits.
  • Candidiasis (thrush), including in the oral cavity.
  • Night sweats.
  • Prolonged diarrhea.
  • Unreasonable nausea and vomiting.
  • A sharp decrease in body weight.
  • Fever.
  • Skin rashes.


Very often, the first symptoms of HIV infection resemble SARS and the flu. The patient is in fever, he is experiencing muscle and headaches. He has aching joints, inflamed mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx. But soon all the unpleasant symptoms disappear on their own and the next stage of HIV infection occurs, when the disease does not give itself away.


HIV is a human immunodeficiency virus. Penetrating into the body, it affects the cells of the immune system, which causes the development of HIV infection – a slowly progressive disease. Without adequate treatment, it becomes AIDS – acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A clear distinction between these concepts helps to understand what happens to the human body at each stage of the disease. It is very important not to miss this period of time, because for the next years (8-10 years) a person will live, feel normal and not even suspect that he is sick with HIV infection. However, he infects other people during unprotected intercourse. But most importantly, he spends precious time. Indeed, without treatment it leads to the inevitable stage of the development of HIV infection – AIDS.


Disease development: from infection to AIDS

The human immunodeficiency virus belongs to the family of retroviruses. At its core, it is a virion – a particle consisting of a shell and a protein-nucleic acid complex. Outside the host cell, it shows no signs of biological activity. But as soon as the HIV virion joins a living cell of immunity (T-lymphocyte), it merges with it and transfers its genetic information to it. An immunity cell infected in this way is unable to perform its functions and is a favorable environment for virion replication – HIV begins to create its own copies. New virus particles bud, enter the bloodstream and find a new host cell. An old virus carrier cell dies, and new T-lymphocytes fall under the scope. And so on ad infinitum! Until the immune system is completely destroyed.


  • HIV enters the body – infection with a virus
  • Virions begin to attack T-lymphocytes – the incubation period.
  • The number of replicated virions increases dramatically – the acute phase.
  • The reproduction rate of HIV is balanced by the body’s immune response – a latent stage in which there are no symptoms.  
  • The number of replications is growing, and the number of healthy T-lymphocytes is steadily decreasing – the immune system does not fulfill its functions and AIDS develops.


Thus, infection and HIV infection are not fatal to humans. Carrying out antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can suppress the activity of the virus, inhibiting the progression of the disease. In fact, the patient is constantly in a latent stage and leads a familiar lifestyle.        


Are you planning to become event photographer in LA? You are at the right place since in this blog we are going to discuss various things that are required from you to become an event photographer in Los Angeles. It is very true that the party does not begin until an event photographer does not walk in. In fact it is very hard to imagine a party without an event photographer in Los Angeles. It could be an event like Friday night in the club or good annual dinner at corporate or company or just a casual get together with your buddies. It is good to have someone who is in charge of capturing all the details of the event on the camera. Following are some tips on how to become a la event photographer-

Discover your zeal in photography and build your capacity

Nowadays everyone irrespective of age, profession or locations are sharing various photographs on social media. It is very good to grasp the attention of potential customers who can potentially offer you work. There is a need to have a beautiful website since it helps to draw a line between professional event photographers and amateur. So by creating a website you start a journey to become an event photographer. It is very necessary for photographers to have a powerful website. Your website should have the potential to transform a website visitor into a client. In the following part you will find some of the important features which your website should have.

  • A good high-quality gallery is needed which features a good collection of your best work.
  • It should have a charming page about you which should include your profile
  • It should have detailed information about all the services which you provide along with contact details.
  • It should have a booking scheduler which should be available all the time

So, in order to get several clients, it is important to show your previous gigs to clients since it would help to showcase your talent. Also, it would help to build up a good and strong portfolio. You should simply start with the simple shooting of small events or your friend’s event. It will put a shadow on the portfolio and showcase you have covered an experienced event.

Earn fame when you can do so

The next tip is to popularize yourself on social media. You should use social media platforms since it would help you to showcase your portfolio and also engage potential clients. For event photographers, social media is slightly different from private users and different businesses. Also, you should make sure that as an event photographer in Los Angeles you should create an impression among your acquaintances about how social media savvy you are. All in all, you should know how social media tools can be used before you begin your journey. It is needless to say that all your social media profiles should be linked with your website and vice versa should be done.

Now since you have a social media presence and a website, you should now focus on the logo for your event photography since it would bring your website and social media profiles together.

Connect with clients both online and offline

It is very important for event photographer to find clients online or offline since it would help to begin your journey as an event photographer. Also, you should learn about local SEO and how it is helpful to the people who are photographers. It is very important to have good website rank since it would help a great deal to attract various clients who would love to see your work. So here are some following things which you could do to make an online presence.

  • You should add your location as a keyword wherever you provide information
  • You should create a good company profile on Google My Business.
  • You should join all the local directories
  • You need to optimize all the websites for mobile.

Apart from SEO, you need to be proactive and dedicate some time that would help to make an online presence. Also, you should devote some time to become a freelance photographer. All these tips are shared by professional event photographers in la photo team.