Tensile Testing, or Tension Testing, falls in the core domain of mechanical engineering and material science. It is a destructive engineering process in which a paper sample subjected to a controlled and predetermined tension. Often, the capability and endurance of the paper sample are tested to the extent to which it doesn’t get damaged. A tensile strength testing machine evaluates the tensile strength of paper or paperboard by stretching it till the time it breaks.
Tensile testing and durable paper products go hand in hand. This form of testing is used to determine the vulnerability and forms a vital determinant of the quality of the paper. Through this test, the yield strength, ductility, tensile strength, Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and strain bearing capabilities of a paper are observed.
What is Tensile Strength?
The tensile strength of a paper is dependent on its fibre orientation, which flows in two directions. Tensile testing evaluates the mechanical and material properties of a paper by determining its stress-strain relationship in both directions. As the first step, one selects a sheet of paper. Strips, also known as ‘Paper Sample’, are cut from the sheet of paper in two perpendicular directions. The first being Machine Direction and the second, Cross Machine Direction. Machine Direction refers to the normal direction of the paper, and Cross Machine Direction refers to the orthogonal direction of the paper, during the manufacturing process. The tensile strength of paper is more in Machine Direction than in Cross Machine Direction and demonstrated as N/m.
Tensile Testing – Equipment
1. Sample Strip Cutter (Guillotine Type)
The Guillotine type Strip Cutter consists of hardened steel blades which enables precision cutting of a variety of items like paper, paperboard, plastics and foils. It can cut strips in 15mm x 300mm or 25mm x 300mm strips. Unlike hand trimmers, the Guillotine type automatic Strip Cutter produces sharp edges and correctly measured strips accurately. The production of test strips is under the BS EN ISO 6892-1 and ASTM E8M guidelines.
2. Sample Strip Cutter (Punch & Die Type)
The Punch & Die type cutters are industry favourites for producing most accurate samples for tensile strength tests, folding endurance tests, ring crush tests, water absorbency tests, and the likes. Broadly, paper, plastic, textile, or paperboard is cut in 15 x 300mm, 25 x 300mm, 50 x 300mm, and 12.7 x 152 mm strips, but can also be customized as per a customer’s needs.
3. Electro-Mechanical Tensile Strength Tester
The Tensile Strength Tester evaluates the tensile force of a sample before breaking and the typical elongation during rupture. A calibrated potentiometer, with load ranges between 0-50 N or 0-300 N, regulates pulling rate through DC variable speed drive and delivers accurate results. It precisely determines the tensile strength of paper, paperboard, plastics, textile, and metal foils.
Tensile testing is a must-do evaluation technique for determining the ability of a material to perform in different situations and forces. It serves as a proof of concept for all new launches. Tensile testing also allows a business house to be entirely sure about the strength of the material used in the product.
Winning the lottery is like getting a second chance at life. It has really changed people’s lives, which is the reason for its immense popularity. But, there are certain ‘dos and don’ts’ in the lottery game that most people do not know.
This lack of knowledge proves to be their downfall when they play, and due to their not knowing what to do and what not to, they end up losing. Here are some essential things everyone should know before trying to win the lottery.
If your lottery ticket does not contain the winning combination, then don’t just toss it in the bin in anger. Look for ‘second-chance’ games. Here you will have a chance of making some money back.
The idea behind second-chance games is that even if all your numbers do not match you still stand a chance of winning some money if four or more numbers match. The payout of these games is obviously lower, but you always get a chance to make something.
Checking lost tickets
People often get quite sentimental when they lose, and their first instinct is to toss out their lottery ticket. This is a bad thing because first, you should always check your ticket twice and second, you should look for second-chance games.
If you find a lottery ticket lying around you should check it just in case, it won a second chance game. You can claim that reward.
Beware of scammers
People are always trying to make a fast buck and are aware of how many people play the lottery. They try to scam these people for their money. You should always buy your tickets from well-known sellers who have been doing this for years and make sure you have a witness or are under surveillance while buying.
Buying more tickets
When you want to enter a lottery draw, do not do it with just one ticket. The odds will be stacked against you. Buy more than one ticket and enter a draw. This way, you will have the odds on your side.
Another way to better your chances is by getting your friends or family interested in making a lottery pool.
Fake online sites
Just like scammers in real life, you have fake online websites that claim to host lottery games. Many people know that they have a significantly higher chance of winning by playing smaller games that are less known. But they end up getting their money stolen via fake websites. Only play games hosted by reputed websites like Lottoland, etc.
Read the ticket properly
Your lottery ticket has more details than just the winning number. You should always read the details printed on your ticket. People often don’t understand their ticket’s ‘claim deadline’ and go to claim their winnings too late and receive nothing.
You cannot claim a lottery winning if the ‘claim deadline’ has passed. You cannot even take legal action against the organization, and you will be forced to go home empty-handed.